Insphpect

This tool is currently proof-of-concept. Your feedback and evaluation is valuable in helping to improve it and ensure its reports are meaninful.

Please click here to complete a short survey to tell us what you think. It should take less than 5 minutes and help further this research project!

Symfony\Component\Routing\Generator\UrlGenerator

Detected issues

Issue Method Line number
Use of static methods string 336

Code

Click highlighted lines for details

<?php/* * This file is part of the Symfony package. * * (c) Fabien Potencier <fabien@symfony.com> * * For the full copyright and license information, please view the LICENSE * file that was distributed with this source code. */namespace Symfony\Component\Routing\Generator;use Psr\Log\LoggerInterface;use Symfony\Component\Routing\Exception\InvalidParameterException;use Symfony\Component\Routing\Exception\MissingMandatoryParametersException;use Symfony\Component\Routing\Exception\RouteNotFoundException;use Symfony\Component\Routing\RequestContext;use Symfony\Component\Routing\RouteCollection;/** * UrlGenerator can generate a URL or a path for any route in the RouteCollection * based on the passed parameters. * * @author Fabien Potencier <fabien@symfony.com> * @author Tobias Schultze <http://tobion.de> */class UrlGenerator implements UrlGeneratorInterface, ConfigurableRequirementsInterface{    private const QUERY_FRAGMENT_DECODED = [        // RFC 3986 explicitly allows those in the query/fragment to reference other URIs unencoded        '%2F' => '/',        '%3F' => '?',        // reserved chars that have no special meaning for HTTP URIs in a query or fragment        // this excludes esp. "&", "=" and also "+" because PHP would treat it as a space (form-encoded)        '%40' => '@',        '%3A' => ':',        '%21' => '!',        '%3B' => ';',        '%2C' => ',',        '%2A' => '*',    ];    protected $routes;    protected $context;    /**     * @var bool|null     */    protected $strictRequirements = true;    protected $logger;    private $defaultLocale;    /**     * This array defines the characters (besides alphanumeric ones) that will not be percent-encoded in the path segment of the generated URL.     *     * PHP's rawurlencode() encodes all chars except "a-zA-Z0-9-._~" according to RFC 3986. But we want to allow some chars     * to be used in their literal form (reasons below). Other chars inside the path must of course be encoded, e.g.     * "?" and "#" (would be interpreted wrongly as query and fragment identifier),     * "'" and """ (are used as delimiters in HTML).     */    protected $decodedChars = [        // the slash can be used to designate a hierarchical structure and we want allow using it with this meaning        // some webservers don't allow the slash in encoded form in the path for security reasons anyway        // see http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4069002/http-400-if-2f-part-of-get-url-in-jboss        '%2F' => '/',        // the following chars are general delimiters in the URI specification but have only special meaning in the authority component        // so they can safely be used in the path in unencoded form        '%40' => '@',        '%3A' => ':',        // these chars are only sub-delimiters that have no predefined meaning and can therefore be used literally        // so URI producing applications can use these chars to delimit subcomponents in a path segment without being encoded for better readability        '%3B' => ';',        '%2C' => ',',        '%3D' => '=',        '%2B' => '+',        '%21' => '!',        '%2A' => '*',        '%7C' => '|',    ];    public function __construct(RouteCollection $routes, RequestContext $context, LoggerInterface $logger = null, string $defaultLocale = null)    {        $this->routes = $routes;        $this->context = $context;        $this->logger = $logger;        $this->defaultLocale = $defaultLocale;    }    /**     * {@inheritdoc}     */    public function setContext(RequestContext $context)    {        $this->context = $context;    }    /**     * {@inheritdoc}     */    public function getContext()    {        return $this->context;    }    /**     * {@inheritdoc}     */    public function setStrictRequirements(?bool $enabled)    {        $this->strictRequirements = $enabled;    }    /**     * {@inheritdoc}     */    public function isStrictRequirements()    {        return $this->strictRequirements;    }    /**     * {@inheritdoc}     */    public function generate(string $name, array $parameters = [], int $referenceType = self::ABSOLUTE_PATH)    {        $route = null;        $locale = $parameters['_locale']            ?? $this->context->getParameter('_locale')            ?: $this->defaultLocale;        if (null !== $locale) {            do {                if (null !== ($route = $this->routes->get($name.'.'.$locale)) && $route->getDefault('_canonical_route') === $name) {                    break;                }            } while (false !== $locale = strstr($locale, '_', true));        }        if (null === $route = $route ?? $this->routes->get($name)) {            throw new RouteNotFoundException(sprintf('Unable to generate a URL for the named route "%s" as such route does not exist.', $name));        }        // the Route has a cache of its own and is not recompiled as long as it does not get modified        $compiledRoute = $route->compile();        $defaults = $route->getDefaults();        $variables = $compiledRoute->getVariables();        if (isset($defaults['_canonical_route']) && isset($defaults['_locale'])) {            if (!\in_array('_locale', $variables, true)) {                unset($parameters['_locale']);            } elseif (!isset($parameters['_locale'])) {                $parameters['_locale'] = $defaults['_locale'];            }        }        return $this->doGenerate($variables, $defaults, $route->getRequirements(), $compiledRoute->getTokens(), $parameters, $name, $referenceType, $compiledRoute->getHostTokens(), $route->getSchemes());    }    /**     * @throws MissingMandatoryParametersException When some parameters are missing that are mandatory for the route     * @throws InvalidParameterException           When a parameter value for a placeholder is not correct because     *                                             it does not match the requirement     *     * @return string     */    protected function doGenerate(array $variables, array $defaults, array $requirements, array $tokens, array $parameters, string $name, int $referenceType, array $hostTokens, array $requiredSchemes = [])    {        $variables = array_flip($variables);        $mergedParams = array_replace($defaults, $this->context->getParameters(), $parameters);        // all params must be given        if ($diff = array_diff_key($variables, $mergedParams)) {            throw new MissingMandatoryParametersException(sprintf('Some mandatory parameters are missing ("%s") to generate a URL for route "%s".', implode('", "', array_keys($diff)), $name));        }        $url = '';        $optional = true;        $message = 'Parameter "{parameter}" for route "{route}" must match "{expected}" ("{given}" given) to generate a corresponding URL.';        foreach ($tokens as $token) {            if ('variable' === $token[0]) {                $varName = $token[3];                // variable is not important by default                $important = $token[5] ?? false;                if (!$optional || $important || !\array_key_exists($varName, $defaults) || (null !== $mergedParams[$varName] && (string) $mergedParams[$varName] !== (string) $defaults[$varName])) {                    // check requirement (while ignoring look-around patterns)                    if (null !== $this->strictRequirements && !preg_match('#^'.preg_replace('/\(\?(?:=|<=|!|<!)((?:[^()\\\\]+|\\\\.|\((?1)\))*)\)/', '', $token[2]).'$#i'.(empty($token[4]) ? '' : 'u'), $mergedParams[$token[3]])) {                        if ($this->strictRequirements) {                            throw new InvalidParameterException(strtr($message, ['{parameter}' => $varName, '{route}' => $name, '{expected}' => $token[2], '{given}' => $mergedParams[$varName]]));                        }                        if ($this->logger) {                            $this->logger->error($message, ['parameter' => $varName, 'route' => $name, 'expected' => $token[2], 'given' => $mergedParams[$varName]]);                        }                        return '';                    }                    $url = $token[1].$mergedParams[$varName].$url;                    $optional = false;                }            } else {                // static text                $url = $token[1].$url;                $optional = false;            }        }        if ('' === $url) {            $url = '/';        }        // the contexts base URL is already encoded (see Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Request)        $url = strtr(rawurlencode($url), $this->decodedChars);        // the path segments "." and ".." are interpreted as relative reference when resolving a URI; see http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3.3        // so we need to encode them as they are not used for this purpose here        // otherwise we would generate a URI that, when followed by a user agent (e.g. browser), does not match this route        $url = strtr($url, ['/../' => '/%2E%2E/', '/./' => '/%2E/']);        if ('/..' === substr($url, -3)) {            $url = substr($url, 0, -2).'%2E%2E';        } elseif ('/.' === substr($url, -2)) {            $url = substr($url, 0, -1).'%2E';        }        $schemeAuthority = '';        $host = $this->context->getHost();        $scheme = $this->context->getScheme();        if ($requiredSchemes) {            if (!\in_array($scheme, $requiredSchemes, true)) {                $referenceType = self::ABSOLUTE_URL;                $scheme = current($requiredSchemes);            }        }        if ($hostTokens) {            $routeHost = '';            foreach ($hostTokens as $token) {                if ('variable' === $token[0]) {                    // check requirement (while ignoring look-around patterns)                    if (null !== $this->strictRequirements && !preg_match('#^'.preg_replace('/\(\?(?:=|<=|!|<!)((?:[^()\\\\]+|\\\\.|\((?1)\))*)\)/', '', $token[2]).'$#i'.(empty($token[4]) ? '' : 'u'), $mergedParams[$token[3]])) {                        if ($this->strictRequirements) {                            throw new InvalidParameterException(strtr($message, ['{parameter}' => $token[3], '{route}' => $name, '{expected}' => $token[2], '{given}' => $mergedParams[$token[3]]]));                        }                        if ($this->logger) {                            $this->logger->error($message, ['parameter' => $token[3], 'route' => $name, 'expected' => $token[2], 'given' => $mergedParams[$token[3]]]);                        }                        return '';                    }                    $routeHost = $token[1].$mergedParams[$token[3]].$routeHost;                } else {                    $routeHost = $token[1].$routeHost;                }            }            if ($routeHost !== $host) {                $host = $routeHost;                if (self::ABSOLUTE_URL !== $referenceType) {                    $referenceType = self::NETWORK_PATH;                }            }        }        if (self::ABSOLUTE_URL === $referenceType || self::NETWORK_PATH === $referenceType) {            if ('' !== $host || ('' !== $scheme && 'http' !== $scheme && 'https' !== $scheme)) {                $port = '';                if ('http' === $scheme && 80 !== $this->context->getHttpPort()) {                    $port = ':'.$this->context->getHttpPort();                } elseif ('https' === $scheme && 443 !== $this->context->getHttpsPort()) {                    $port = ':'.$this->context->getHttpsPort();                }                $schemeAuthority = self::NETWORK_PATH === $referenceType || '' === $scheme ? '//' : "$scheme://";                $schemeAuthority .= $host.$port;            }        }        if (self::RELATIVE_PATH === $referenceType) {            $url = self::getRelativePath($this->context->getPathInfo(), $url);        } else {            $url = $schemeAuthority.$this->context->getBaseUrl().$url;        }        // add a query string if needed        $extra = array_udiff_assoc(array_diff_key($parameters, $variables), $defaults, function ($a, $b) {            return $a == $b ? 0 : 1;        });        // extract fragment        $fragment = $defaults['_fragment'] ?? '';        if (isset($extra['_fragment'])) {            $fragment = $extra['_fragment'];            unset($extra['_fragment']);        }        if ($extra && $query = http_build_query($extra, '', '&', PHP_QUERY_RFC3986)) {            $url .= '?'.strtr($query, self::QUERY_FRAGMENT_DECODED);        }        if ('' !== $fragment) {            $url .= '#'.strtr(rawurlencode($fragment), self::QUERY_FRAGMENT_DECODED);        }        return $url;    }    /**     * Returns the target path as relative reference from the base path.     *     * Only the URIs path component (no schema, host etc.) is relevant and must be given, starting with a slash.     * Both paths must be absolute and not contain relative parts.     * Relative URLs from one resource to another are useful when generating self-contained downloadable document archives.     * Furthermore, they can be used to reduce the link size in documents.     *     * Example target paths, given a base path of "/a/b/c/d":     * - "/a/b/c/d"     -> ""     * - "/a/b/c/"      -> "./"     * - "/a/b/"        -> "../"     * - "/a/b/c/other" -> "other"     * - "/a/x/y"       -> "../../x/y"     *     * @param string $basePath   The base path     * @param string $targetPath The target path     *     * @return string The relative target path     */

Static methods

Summary of issues

  • Tight Coupling
  • Hidden dependencies
  • Global state (if also using static variables)

Tight Coupling

Use of static methods always reduces flexibility by introducing tight coupling[1]. A static method tightly couples the calling code to the specific class the method exists in.

 
function totalAbs(double valuedouble value2) {
    return 
abs(value) + abs(value2);
}

Here, the method totalAbs has a dependency on the Math class and the .abs() method will always be called. Although for testing purposes this may not be a problem, the coupling reduces flexibility because the total method can only work with doubles/integers, as that's all the Math.abs() function can use. Although type coercion will allow the use of any primitive numeric type, these types have limitations. It's impossible to use another class such as BigInteger or a class for dealing with greater precision decimals or even alternative numbering systems such as Roman numerals.

The totalAbs function takes two doubles and converts them to their absolute values before adding them. This is inflexible because it only works with doubles. It's tied to doubles because that's what the Math.abs() static method requires. If, instead, using OOP an interface was created to handle any number that had this method:

 interface Numeric {
    public function 
abs(): Numeric;
}

It would then be possible to rewrite the totalAbs method to work with any kind of number:

 function totalAbs(Numeric valueNumeric value): Numeric {
    return 
value.abs() + value2.abs();
}

By removing the static method and using an instance method in its place the totalAbs method is now agnostic about the type of number it is dealing with. It could be called with any of the following (assuming they implement the Numeric interface)

 
totalAbs(new Integer(4), new Integer(-53));

totalAbs(new Double(34.4), new Integer(-2));

totalAbs(new BigInteger('123445454564765739878989343225778'), new Integer(2343));

totalAbs(new RomanNumeral('VII'), new RomanNumeral('CXV'));

Making the method reusable in a way that it wasn't when static methods were being used. By changing the static methods to instance methods, flexibility has been enhanced as the method can be used with any numeric type, not just numeric types that are supported by the Math.abs() method.

Broken encapsulation

Static methods also break encapsulation. Encapsulation is defined by Rogers[2] as:

the bundling of data with the methods that operate on that data

By passing the numeric value into the abs method, the data being operated on is being separated from the methods that operate on it, breaking encapsulation. Instead using num.abs() the data is encapsulated in the num instance and its type is not visible or relevant to the outside world. abs() will work on the data and work regardless of num's type, providing it implements the abs method.

This is a simple example, but applies to all static methods. Use of polymorphic instance methods that work on encapsulated data will always be more flexible than static method calls which can only ever deal with specific pre-defined types.

Further reading

Exceptions

The only exception to this rule is when a static method is used for object creation in place of the new keyword[3]. This is because the new keyword is already a static call. However, even here a non-static factory is often preferable for testing purposes[4][5].

References

  1. Popov, N. (2014) Don't be STUPID: GRASP SOLID! [online]. Available from: https://nikic.github.io/2011/12/27/Dont-be-STUPID-GRASP-SOLID.html
  2. Rogers, P. (2001) Encapsulation is not information hiding [online]. Available from: http://www.javaworld.com/article/2075271/core-java/encapsulation-is-not-information-hiding.html
  3. Sonmez, J. (2010) Static Methods Will Shock You [online]. Available from: http://simpleprogrammer.com/2010/01/29/static-methods-will-shock-you/
  4. Hevery, M. (2008) Static Methods are Death to Testability [online]. Available from: http://misko.hevery.com/2008/12/15/static-methods-are-death-to-testability/
  5. Butler, T. (2013) Are Static Methods/Variables bad practice? [online]. Available from: https://r.je/static-methods-bad-practice.html
{ if ($basePath === $targetPath) { return ''; } $sourceDirs = explode('/', isset($basePath[0]) && '/' === $basePath[0] ? substr($basePath, 1) : $basePath); $targetDirs = explode('/', isset($targetPath[0]) && '/' === $targetPath[0] ? substr($targetPath, 1) : $targetPath); array_pop($sourceDirs); $targetFile = array_pop($targetDirs); foreach ($sourceDirs as $i => $dir) { if (isset($targetDirs[$i]) && $dir === $targetDirs[$i]) { unset($sourceDirs[$i], $targetDirs[$i]); } else { break; } } $targetDirs[] = $targetFile; $path = str_repeat('../', \count($sourceDirs)).implode('/', $targetDirs); // A reference to the same base directory or an empty subdirectory must be prefixed with "./". // This also applies to a segment with a colon character (e.g., "file:colon") that cannot be used // as the first segment of a relative-path reference, as it would be mistaken for a scheme name // (see http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-4.2). return '' === $path || '/' === $path[0] || false !== ($colonPos = strpos($path, ':')) && ($colonPos < ($slashPos = strpos($path, '/')) || false === $slashPos) ? "./$path" : $path; }}